Insulin 100IU is a specific sugar-reducing agent , has the ability to regulate carbohydrate metabolism; enhances the absorption of glucose by tissues and promotes its transformation into glycogen, facilitates also the penetration of glucose into tissue cells.
In addition to hypoglycemic action (lowering blood sugar level), insulin has a number of other effects: it increases glycogen stores in muscles, stimulates the synthesis of peptides, reduces protein consumption, etc.
The effect of insulin is accompanied by stimulation or inhibition (suppression) of certain enzymes ; stimulated glycogen synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, hexokinase; inhibited lipase, fatty acid activating fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, which reduces the “cloudiness” of blood serum after intake of fat-rich food.
The degree of biosynthesis and secretion (secretion) of insulin depends on the concentration of glucose in the blood.
With an increase in its content, insulin secretion in the pancreas increases; conversely, a decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood slows the secretion of insulin.
In implementing the effects of insulin, the leading role is played by its interaction with a specific receptor localized on the plasma membrane of the cell, and the formation of an insulin-receptor complex.
The insulin receptor, in combination with insulin, penetrates into the cell , where it affects the phospholysis of cellular proteins; further intracellular reactions have not been fully elucidated.
Insulin is the main specific treatment for diabetes because it reduces hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose) and glycosuria (the presence of sugar in the urine), replenishes the glycogen depot in the liver and muscles, reduces the formation of glucose, softens diabetic lipemia (the presence of fat in the blood) , improves the general condition of the patient .
Insulin for medical use is obtained from the pancreas of cattle and pigs . There is a method of chemical synthesis of insulin, but it is inaccessible.
Recently, biotechnological methods of obtaining human insulin have been developed. The insulin obtained by genetic engineering methods fully corresponds to the amino acid sequence of human insulin.
In cases when insulin is obtained from the pancreas of animals, different impurities (proinsulin, glucagon, self-tasting, proteins, polypeptides, etc.) may be present in the preparation due to insufficient purification.
Poorly purified insulin preparations can cause various side reactions.
Modern methods make it possible to obtain purified (monopic – chromatographically purified with the isolation of “peak” insulin), highly purified (monocomponent) and crystallized insulin preparations.
At present, crystalline human insulin is increasingly used.
From insulin preparations of animal origin, preference is given to insulin obtained from the pancreas of pigs.
The activity of insulin is determined biologically (by the ability to lower the glucose content of blood in healthy rabbits) and one of the physicochemical methods (by electrophoresis on paper or by chromatography on paper). For one unit of action (ED), or an international unit (IE), the activity of 0.04082 mg of crystalline insulin is taken.
Indications for use Insulin 100IU:
The main indication for the use of insulin is diabetes mellitus type I (insulin-dependent), but under certain conditions it is prescribed for type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent).
Mode of application:
In the treatment of diabetes , insulin preparations of different duration of action are used .
Short-acting insulin is usedalso in some other pathological processes for causing hypoglycemic conditions (lowering blood sugar levels) in certain forms of schizophrenia, as anabolic (protein-boosting) means with overall exhaustion, lack of nutrition, furunculosis (multiple purulent inflammation of the skin), thyrotoxicosis (thyroid disease gland), with diseases of the stomach (atony / loss of tone /, gastroptosis / omission of the stomach), chronic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver tissue), the initial forms of cirrhosis of the liver, component “polarizing” solutions used to treat acute coronary insufficiency (mismatch between cardiac oxygen demand and its delivery).
The choice of Insulin 100IU for the treatment of diabetes depends on the severity and characteristics of the course of the disease, the general condition of the patient, as well as the rate of onset and the duration of the sugar-lowering effect of the drug.
The primary purpose of insulin and the establishment of a dose is desirable to conduct in a hospital (hospital).
Short-acting insulin preparations are solutions intended for subcutaneous or intramuscular administration.
If necessary, they are administered intravenously.
They have a quick and relatively short sugar-reducing effect.
Usually they are administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly 15-20 min before meals from one to several times during the day.
The effect after subcutaneous injection comes in 15-20 minutes, reaches a maximum after 2 hours; the total duration of action is no more than 6 hours.
They are used mainly in the hospital to determine the insulin dose necessary for the patient, and also in those cases when it is required to achieve a rapid change in insulin activity in the body – with diabetic coma and precoma (complete or partial loss of consciousness due to a sudden sharp increase in blood sugar) .
In addition, short-acting Insulin 100IU preparations are used as an anabolic agent and are prescribed, as a rule, in small doses (4-8 units 1-2 times a day).
Long-acting insulin preparations are available in various dosage forms with different duration of the sugar-reducing effect (seedling, long, ultralong).
Different drugs effect lasts from 10 to 36 hours.
Thanks to these drugs, you can reduce the number of daily injections.
They are usually released in the form of suspensions (suspension of solid particles of the drug in the liquid), administered only subcutaneously or intramuscularly; intravenous administration is not allowed. With diabetic coma and precomatitis, prolonged drugs are not used.
When choosing a preparation of Insulin 100IU, it is necessary to ensure that the period of maximum sugar-reducing effect coincides with the time of taking the food.
If necessary, 2 long-acting drugs can be administered in one syringe.
Some patients need not only a long, but rapid normalization of blood glucose levels. They have to prescribe long-acting and short-acting insulin preparations.
Usually , long-acting drugs are given before breakfast , but if necessary, the injection can be done at other hours.
Side effects of Insulin 100IU:
With subcutaneous administration of insulin preparations, it is possible to develop lipodystrophy (reducing the volume of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous tissue) at the injection site.
Modern highly purified insulin preparations are relatively rare to cause allergy phenomena, but such cases are not ruled out. The development of an acute allergic reaction requires immediate desensitizing (preventive or inhibitory allergic reaction) therapy and drug replacement.
Contraindications Insulin 100IU:
Contraindications to the use of Insulin 100IU are diseases that occur with hypoglycemia, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemolytic jaundice (yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes of the eyeballs caused by the breakdown of red blood cells), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), nephritis (inflammation of the kidney), amyloidosis of the kidneys kidney disease associated with impaired protein / amyloid metabolism /), urolithiasis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, decompensated heart defects (heart failure due to disease of its valves).
Great care is required in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, suffering from coronary insufficiency (a mismatch between the need for oxygen in the heart and its delivery) and brain damage; blood circulation.
Caution is needed when using insulin in patients with thyroid disease, Addison’s disease (insufficient adrenal function), renal insufficiency.
Insulin 100IU therapy of pregnant women should be carried out under careful control.
During the first trimester of pregnancy, the need for insulin usually decreases slightly and rises in the II and III trimesters.
Alpha-adrenoblockers and beta-adrenostimulants, tetracyclines, salicylates increase the secretion of endogenous (secretion of the formed in the body) insulin.
Thiazide diuretics (diuretics), beta-blockers, alcohol can lead to hypoglycemia.
Interaction with other medicinal products:
Hypoglycemic action of insulin enhances oral hypoglycemic drugs, MAO inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, nonselective beta adrenoblockers, bromocriptine, octreotide, sulfonamides, anabolic steroids, tetracyclines, clofibrate, ketoconazole, mebendazole, pyridoxine, theophylline, cyclophosphamide, fenfluramine, lithium preparations, preparations containing ethanol.
The hypoglycemic effect of insulin is weakened by oral contraceptives, GCS, thyroid hormones, thiazide diuretics, heparin, tricyclic antidepressants, sympathomimetics, danazol, clonidine, calcium channel blockers, diazoxide, morphine, phenytoin, nicotine.
Under the influence of reserpine and salicylates, both weakening and enhancement of the action of the drug are possible.
Medicines containing thiol or sulphite, when added to insulin, cause its destruction.
In pregnancy, the type of insulin, its doses and the schedule of administration are determined by the attending physician.
If the initially selected treatment regimen is not suitable – it is necessary to consult a doctor again and find, in the final analysis, the most convenient and effective treatment regimen.
Overdose Insulin 100IU:
Symptoms : muscle weakness, easy fatigue; a feeling of hunger, abundant salivation; pallor, numbness of fingers, tremor, palpitation, dilated pupils; blurred vision, headache, frequent yawning, chewing; darkening of consciousness, oppression or arousal, unmotivated actions, tonic or clonic convulsions, and, finally, a coma.
Treatment of hypoglycemia should be started immediately.
In light cases it is enough to give inside the sweet tea, fruit juices, honey.
With complete loss of consciousness (coma), immediately inject a concentrated solution of glucose (10-20 ml of 20-40% glucose).
If there is no possibility of intravenous injection of glucose solution, it is recommended to intramuscularly introduce 0.001-0.002 g of glucagon or under the skin of 0.5 ml of 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride.
It should be borne in mind that with the introduction of adrenaline may occur side effects – palpitation, tremor, increased blood pressure, anxiety, etc.
Form of issue:
Insulin 100IU for injection with a syringe is available in glass bottles, hermetically sealed with rubber stoppers with aluminum rolling.
In bottles of 10 ml, in a box of 5 pcs or in penfill (cartridges) of 1.5 and 3 ml for syringe pens .
1 ml of the solution or suspension contains typically 40 units.
Depending on the sources of production , insulin, isolated from the pancreas of animals, and synthesized by genetic engineering methods are distinguished.
Insulin preparations from animal tissues are divided into monopic (MP) and monocomponent (MC) according to the degree of purification.
Obtained at present from the pancreas of pigs is denoted additionally with the letter C (SMP – porcine monopic, SMK – porcine monocomponent); cattle – the letter G (beef: GMP – beef monoclean, GMC – beef monocomponent).
Human insulin preparations are designated with the letter C.
Depending on the duration of the action of insulin are divided into:
– short-acting insulin preparations : the onset of action after 15-30 min; peak action after 1 / 2-2 hours; the total duration of action is 4-6 hours;
– Long-acting insulin preparations include medications of medium duration (beginning at 1 / 2-2 hours, peak after 3-12 hours, total duration 8-12 hours); Long-acting preparations (beginning 4-8 hours, peak after 8-18 hours, total duration 20-30 hours).